Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or avoid a illness or issue. Bone marrow transplant is the most broadly utilized stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to build various sources for stem cells, as well as to apply stem-cell treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions this kind of as diabetes and heart illness, amongst other individuals.
Stem-cell therapy has turn out to be controversial following developments this kind of as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to develop stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of methods to develop induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is often associated to abortion politics and to human cloning. Furthermore, efforts to market place treatment options primarily based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.
For more than thirty many years, bone marrow has been utilized to treat people with cancer with conditions this kind of as leukaemia and lymphoma this is the only kind of stem-cell therapy that is broadly practiced. In the course of chemotherapy, most expanding cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, nonetheless, can not discriminate in between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells inside of the bone marrow. It is this side result of standard chemotherapy strategies that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces practical stem cells to substitute the cells lost in the host’s physique for the duration of therapy. The transplanted cells also generate an immune response that helps to destroy off the cancer cells this process can go as well far, nonetheless, leading to graft vs host illness, the most severe side result of this therapy.
An additional stem cell therapy referred to as Prochymal, was conditionally authorized in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host illness in children who are unresponsive to steroids. It is an allogenic stem therapy primarily based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of grownup donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until necessary.
The FDA has authorized five hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the therapy of blood and immunological diseases.
In 2014, the European Medicines Company suggested approval of limbal stem cells for people with extreme limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.